Samenvatting

TIME DOES NOT HEAL ALL WOUNDS: IDENTIFYING CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA EVA VERLINDEN
Traumatic exposure is a common experience among children and may have severe and long lasting effects on child’s mental well-being and development. We reported on children who have been exposed to one or more potentially traumatic events during their lives and focused on identifying those children suff ering from psychological trauma. It was found that exposure to single trauma and child maltreatment leads to diff erent traumatic stress profi les and that the eff ects of child maltreatment tend to extend symptoms of PTSD. Furthermore, the results provided support for the reliability and validity of the CRIES, a screening tool for child’s posttraumatic stress. This screening tool may help clinicians to identify children suff ering from psychological trauma and to assign appropriate follow-up diagnostic and clinical care.

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Kinderen worden geregeld blootgesteld aan schokkende gebeurtenissen zoals verkeersongelukken, geweld op school, seksueel misbruik of kindermishandeling. Dit kan ernstige psychische gevolgen met zich meebrengen. Nog al te vaak worden deze psychische gevolgen niet onderkend. Kinderen blijven daardoor langdurig rondlopen met klachten of krijgen een verkeerde diagnose toegeschreven. Hoe kunnen we de psychische gevolgen van een schokkende gebeurtenis vroegtijdig herkennen? Eva Verlinden zoekt antwoord op deze vraag.

Inleiding

Kinderen en adolescenten worden regelmatig geconfronteerd met schokkende gebeurtenissen. Soms betreft het een eenmalige gebeurtenis, zoals een verkeersongeluk of een brand. Andere gebeurtenissen zijn langdurig van aard, denk aan huiselijk geweld of seksueel misbruik. Na het meemaken van een schokkende gebeurtenis hebben vrijwel alle kinderen en adolescenten in meer of mindere mate last van stressreacties. Voorbeelden hiervan zijn prikkelbaarheid, somberheid, inslaapproblemen, nachtmerries of woedeuitbarstingen (American Psychiatric Association, 2008; Gurwitch et al., 2008)220. Deze stressreacties zijn in de eerste weken na het meemaken van een schokkende gebeurtenis heel normaal. Bij de meeste kinderen verdwijnen deze reacties weer na verloop van tijd. Het meemaken van één of meer schokkende gebeurtenissen kan echter ook tot blijvende psychische schade leiden; dan spreken we van een trauma (Copeland et al., 2007; De Bellis & Van Dillen, 2005)89. Het woord ‘trauma’ is afkomstig uit het Grieks en betekent letterlijk ‘wond’ of ‘verwonding’. In de medische wereld verwijst het woord trauma…

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