Despite the great popularity of the neo-inventories, there are sufficient reasons to look for an alternative instrument. Starting with the criticism that the status of McCrae and Costa’s FFM, both from a lexical (Big Five) and a theoretical perspective, is unclear, Van Kampen’s 5DPT model was presented to give a more adequate description of the basic dimensions of personality, at least from a theoretical stance. Besides, it was argued that several neo-inventories contain items that show unacceptable cross-loadings, whereas the 5DPT items are remarkably factor-pure. Finally, using item-level analyses to investigate the invariance of the FFM dimensions in relation to the sample parameters gender and age, positive results were only obtained for Extraversion and Neuroticism, whereas all 5DPT factors appear to be highly invariant with respect to eight sample parameters, thereby showing that individuals, which diff er from each other in terms of gender, age, education and/or their position on the 5DPT dimensions themselves, attach the same meaning to the 5DPT constructs.

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Hoewel uitermate populair kunnen tegen het FFM-model van Costa en McCrae, en de daarop gebaseerde NEO-vragenlijsten, diverse bezwaren worden ingebracht. Dirk van Kampen behandelt in dit artikel enkele van deze kritiekpunten. Ook gaat hij, rekening houdend met deze bezwaren, in op de 5DPT en het daaraan ten grondslag liggende model en presenteert die als een serieus te nemen alternatief.

Het in de huidige persoonlijkheidspsychologie waarschijnlijk meest populaire model is Costa en McCrae’s (1985, 1989, 1992a)789 Five Factor Model (FFM). De factorstructuur van dit model berust op een aanpassing van de structuur van een eerder geconstrueerde vragenlijst, de NEO Inventory (McCrae & Costa, 1983)37, aan wat later kon worden aangetoond in lexicale Big Five-studies (bijv. Goldberg, 1990, 1992)2223. Dit betekende dat naast de NEO-dimensies Neuroticisme (N), Extraversie (E) en Openheid (O), die door de auteurs verondersteld werden rechtstreeks de Big Five-factoren Emotional Stability (gespiegeld), Surgency en Intellect te vertegenwoordigen, twee andere dimensies aan de NEO-structuur werden toegevoegd, te weten Altruïsme (de Engelse term is Agreeableness; A) en Consciëntieusheid; C – zie bijvoorbeeld McCrae & Costa, 1985).

De schalen voor de vijf dimensies werden gezamenlijk gepubliceerd als de NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985). In een later stadium werden diverse wijzigingen aangebracht, onder andere resulterend in de NEO


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