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Psychische stoornissen raken mensen in de kern van hun existentie. Vaak roepen ze fundamentele vragen op naar zin en betekenis, en hebben ze invloed op hoe mensen kijken naar zichzelf, naar anderen, de wereld en God. In de klinische godsdienstpsychologie staan de relaties tussen psychopathologie en religie en zingeving centraal. Hanneke Schaap-Jonker werkt vier stellingen inhoudelijk uit. ‘Existentieel herstel is richtinggevend voor klinisch herstel.’

Het vakgebied

Godsdienstpsychologen richten zich op de functie van religie en zingeving voor het mentaal welbevinden van mensen: hoe en in hoeverre dragen religie en zingeving in positieve of negatieve zin bij aan het psychisch functioneren? Daarnaast onderzoeken ze hoe psychologische processen een rol spelen in geloof en ongeloof, in ervaringen van zin en zinloosheid, in twijfel en religieuze worstelingen.

In de klinische godsdienstpsychologie worden genoemde relaties onderzocht in de context van psychopathologie en mentale gezondheid. Hoe hangen psychische klachten of psychiatrische stoornissen samen met religie en spiritualiteit? Maakt geloof ziek, of is het juist een helpende factor in het herstel, of zelfs in het voorkomen van psychische ziekte? Speelt het een rol in de presentatie en het beloop van de klachten? Hoe dan, en waarom, en wanneer en bij wie? En andersom: wat doet het met de religieuze overtuigingen, de geloofsbeleving, religieuze praktijken, en het ervaren van zin en betekenis wanneer mensen een psychiatrische stoornis hebben? Welke

Dit artikel is een bewerking van de oratie die zij uitsprak op 14 juni jl. als bijzonder hoogleraar Klinische Godsdienstpsychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

1. Zelfcompassie wordt geoperationaliseerd in drie componenten en gemeten via zes subschalen (Neff et al., 2019): self-kindness (versus self-judgment), common humanity (versus a sense of isolation), en mindfulness (versus over-identification).

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