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Zelfregulatie is de vaardigheid aandacht, emoties en gedrag te beheersen wanneer dat nodig is. Bij kinderen ontwikkelt dit vermogen zich in rap tempo, hoewel er grote individuele verschillen zijn. Sanne Geeraerts onderzocht processen die een rol spelen in de vroege ontwikkeling van zelfregulatie. Specifiek deed ze onderzoek naar kenmerken van baby’s, ouders en het huishouden waarin kinderen opgroeien. ‘Waarom zou jammeren wel voorspellend zijn voor zelfregulatie, terwijl huilen dat niet is?’

Al op de basisschool kunnen de meeste kinderen langere tijd aan een opdracht werken, instructies voor taken opvolgen en ruzies met klasgenootjes oplossen. Kinderen hebben hier zelfregulatie voor nodig. Dit betreft het vermogen om eigen emoties, gedrag en aandacht te beheersen wanneer dat nodig is (Karoly, 1993). Deze vaardigheid ontwikkelt zich in de jaren voor de basisschoolleeftijd in rap tempo. De mate waarin kinderen in staat zijn tot zelfregulatie verschilt echter van kind tot kind. Dergelijke individuele verschillen zijn belangrijk: kinderen die meer moeite hebben met zelfregulatie blijken later op verschillende gebieden (bijvoorbeeld op school en in relaties met anderen) minder goed te functioneren (Blair & Razza, 2007; Eisenberg, Fabes, Gurthrie, & Reiser, 2000). Het is daarom belangrijk inzicht te verkrijgen in de manier waarop verschillen tussen kinderen in zelfregulatie ontstaan, zodat preventieve maatregelen en vroege behandelingen daarop kunnen insteken.

Definities en metingen van zelfregulatie

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