Samenvatting

Dealing with changes in the labor market: research into psychological mechanisms that may affect work aspects. M.V.E. Leenders

In four studies, research was done on variables that could infl uence work aspects. In study one the relationship between attachment styles and job search variables was investigated. The results showed that a more avoiding attachment style infl uenced these variables. In study two it was investigated whether there is an association between the relationship with the parents at a young age and work orientation and work ethic. These relationships were found for both variables, especially for men. The relationship with the father seems to play a more important role than the relationship with the mother. The third study concerned the effect of procrastination in outplacement situations. Two personality variables, namely locus of control and achievement motivation were related to procrastination. Job search self-efficacy was the only variable associated with finding another job. In the fourth study the relationship between burnout and retirement intentions in older employees (> 50 years) was investigated. This group experienced burnout complaints that were related to these intentions. Moreover, it was found that the quality of the relationship with the partner also influenced the retirement intentions.

Log in
Wat maakt dat sommige werknemers zich moeiteloos lijken aan te passen aan de veranderende arbeidsmarkt terwijl dit anderen meer moeite lijkt te kosten? Monique Leenders deed onderzoek naar verschillende psychologische mechanismen die een rol kunnen spelen in hoe werknemers omgaan met deze veranderingen. ‘Het uiteindelijke doel is om interventies te ontwikkelen die kunnen bijdragen aan hoe werkgevers en werknemers het beste kunnen omgaan met de eisen die het werk tegenwoordig aan eenieder stelt.

De arbeidsmarkt is de laatste decennia sterk aan veranderingen onderhevig. Was er in 2008 de economische crisis die wereldwijd enorme gevolgen voor veel organisaties heeft gehad, op dit moment bevinden we ons in Nederland in een tijd van economische groei. In verschillende sectoren begint het tekort aan arbeidskrachten zich al af te tekenen. Toch lijkt er op de arbeidsmarkt iets substantieels veranderd. Voorheen gingen werkgevers en werknemers langdurige werkrelaties aan met elkaar. Door de globalisering en de vele (politieke) ontwikkelingen is er tegenwoordig eerder sprake van baanonzekerheid dan baanzekerheid. Met de invoering van de Wet Werk en Zekerheid op 1 juni 2015 heeft de overheid geprobeerd meer werkzekerheid te creëren. De wet had echter een tegengesteld effect. In plaats van dat werknemers na twee jaar tijdelijke contracten een vast dienstverband werd aanboden, kozen veel werkgevers er juist voor contracten niet te verlengen. Het huidige kabinet heeft er dan ook voor gekozen een aantal van deze maatregelen terug te draaien. Niettemin…

Literatuurlijst
  1. Bartley, M., Head, J. & Stansfeldes, S. (2007). Is attachment style a source of resilience against health inequalities at work? Social Science & Medicine, 64, 765–775.
  2. Blustein, D.L. (2011). A relational theory of working. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 1-17. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2010.10.004.
  3. Blustein, D.L., Palladino Schultheiss, D.E. & Flum, H. (2004). Toward a relational perspective of the psychology of careers and working: A social constructionist analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 423-440. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2003.12.008.
  4. Bowlby, J. (1982): Attachment and loss: Vol. 1 Attachment (2nd Edition). New York: Basic. (Original work published 1969).
  5. Bretherton, I. (2010). Fathers in attachment theory and research: A review. Early Child Development and Care, 180(1-2), 9-23. doi:10.1080/03004430903414661.
  6. Cabrera, N., Fitzgerald, H.E., Bradley, R.H. & Roggman, L. (2007). Modeling the dynamics of paternal infl uences on children over the life course: Applied Developmental Science, 11, 185-189. doi:10.1080/10888690701762027.
  7. CBS (2015). CBS en TNO: Een op de zeven werknemers heeft burn-outklachten. Retrieved from https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2015/47/cbs-en-tno-een-op-de-zeven-werknemers-heeft-burn-outklachten.
  8. Davey, A. & Szinovacz, M.E. (2004). Dimensions of marital quality and retirement. Journal of Family Issues, 25, 431-464. doi:10.1177/0192513X03257698.
  9. Desivilya, H.S., Sabag, Y. & Ashton, E. (2006). Prosocial tendencies in organizations: The role of attachment styles and organizational justice in shaping organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 14, 22-42. doi:10.1108/10553180610739731
  10. Dykstra, P.A., Kalmijn, M., Knijn, T.C.M., Komter, A.E., Liefbroer, A.C. & Mulder, C.H. (2012). Codebook of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, a multi-actor, multi-method panel study on solidarity in family relationships, Wave 2. NKPS Working Paper No. 8. The Hague: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. Ellis, A. & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Signet Books.
  11. Florian, V., Mikulincer, M. & Bucholtz, I. (1995). E„ ects of adult attachment style on the perception and search for social support. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 129, 665-676. http://dx.doi.or g/10.1080/00223980.1995.9914937.
  12. Grossmann, K., Grossmann, K.E., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Kindler, H., Scheuerer-Englisch, H. & Zimmerman, P. (2002). The uniqueness of the child–father attachment relationship: Fathers’ sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16-year longitudinal study. Social Development, 11, 307–331. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00202.
  13. Harriott, J. & Ferrari, J.R. (1996). Prevalence of procrastination among samples of adults. Psychological Reports, 78, 611-616.
  14. Hayes, A.F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford.
  15. Hazan, C. & Shaver, P.R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.511.
  16. Henkens, K. & Van Solinge, H. (2003). Het eindspel: Werknemers, hun partners en leidinggevenden over uittreden uit het arbeidsproces. Assen: Koninklijke Van Gorkum B.V.
  17. Henkens, K., Van Solinge, H., Damman, M. & Dingemans, E. (2016). Langer doorwerken valt nog niet mee. Demos. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografi sch Instituut.
  18. Hill, R.B. & Petty, G.C. (1995). A new look at selected employability skills: A factor analysis of the occupational work ethic. Journal of Vocational Education Research, 20, 59-73. Lay, C.H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474-495.
  19. Leenders, M.V.E. & Sanders, J.B.P. (2014). Uitstelgedrag in outplacement situaties. Gedrag & Organisatie, 1, 90-110.
  20. Leenders, M. & Henkens, K. (2010). Burnout en pensioenplannen bij oudere werknemers. Tijdschrift Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 41, 136-145.
  21. Leenders, M.V.E., Buunk, A.P. & Henkens, K. (2017). The role of the relationship with parents with respect to work orientation and work ethic. The Journal of General Psychology, 144, 36-34.
  22. Leenders, M.V.E., Buunk, A.P. & Henkens, K. (2018). Attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety as individual characteristics a„ ecting job search behaviour. Journal of Career Development, 1-15. DOI: 10.1177/0894845318772091
  23. Mann, L. (2016). Procrastination revisited: A commentary. Australian Psychologist, 51, 47-51. doi:10.1111/ap.12208.
  24. Maslach, C. & Jackson, S.E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 2, 99-113.
  25. McCarthy, C.J., Moller, N.P. & Fouladi, R.T. (2001). Continued attachment to parents: Its relationship to a„ ect regulation and perceived stress among college students. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33, 198-213.
  26. Nguyen, B., Steel, P. & Ferrari, J.R. (2013). Procrastination’s impact in the workplace and the workplace’s impact on procrastination. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21, 388-399. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12048.
  27. O’Brien, K.M., Miller Friedman, S., Tipton, L.C. & Geschmay Linn, S. (2000). Attachment, separation, and women’s vocational development: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 301-315. doi:10.1037//0022-0167.47.3.301.
  28. Schaufeli, W. & Van Dierendonck, D. (2000). Utrechtse burnout schaal, Handleiding. Lisse:
  29. Swets & Zeitlinger B.V.. Shirom, A. (2003). Job-related burnout: A review. In J C. Quick & L.E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 245-264). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  30. Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 65-94. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65.