WHEN GAMING INVOLVES NOT JUST A HARMLESS GAME, BUT BECOMES AN ADDICTION  A RESEARCH INTO PROBLEMATIC GAMING AMONG MALE DUTCH ADOLESCENTS

E. KANTERS & A.H.L.M. PIETERS

Gaming is a popular activity among adolescents. Yet it seems that  this is not just a harmless activity. Gaming can grow into an addiction: the so-called Internet Gaming Disorder. This disorder seems to have many negative consequences. This literature review has looked at how long-term and excessive gaming among male adolescents in the Netherlands can develop in an addiction. By researching the extent of this problem, more awareness can be raised in order to develop better prevention and treatment strategies. Long-term gaming, it is concluded, does not suddenly develop into an addiction. Demographic, interpersonal and personality characteristics are important. Additionally, there is a link with the Big Five personality traits. Many psychiatric comorbidities, especially anxiety, depression and ADHD, have also been associated with Internet Gaming Disorder. Finally, it appeared that parents, in particular the father, can play a significant role in whether or not the problematic gaming of adolescents develops.   


286 Weergaven
0 Downloads
Log in
Gamen is populair onder jongeren. Minder bekend is de Internet Gaming Disorder, een ‘gameverslaving’ die voortkomt uit gamen, met veel negatieve consequenties. Esmee Kanters en Toine Pieters deden literatuuronderzoek naar hoe veel en langdurig gamen bij mannelijke Nederlandse jongeren zich kan ontwikkelen tot een verslaving. Door de omvang van het probleem in kaart te brengen kan meer bekendheid aan dit probleem gegeven worden. Zo zijn betere preventie- en behandelstrategieën te ontwikkelen.

Introductie

Gamen is een belangrijke vorm van entertainment in de huidige maatschappij. Wereldwijd waren er in 2017 ruim 1,8 miljard gamers (De Vos, 2017). Dit zijn voornamelijk mannellijke jongeren: bijna de helft van de Nederlandse mannelijke basisscholieren gamet (bijna) iedere dag. Voor meisjes is dit significant lager, ‘slechts’ 20% van hen gamet (bijna) iedere dag. Voor middelbare scholieren is dit bij jongens en meisjes respectievelijk 42,5% en 11,2% (Stevens et al., 2017).

Bijna de helft van de Nederlandse mannelijke basisscholieren gamet (bijna) iedere dag

De activiteit gamen kan als een positieve bezigheid gezien worden; het geeft plezier en voorziet in een aantal basale intrinsieke behoeften zoals competitie (Van Leeuwen & Goossens, 2016). Ook kunnen de motorische en perceptuele vaardigheden verbeteren (Powers et al., 2013). Niet alle gamers raken ook daadwerkelijk ‘verslaafd’ aan gamen of vertonen problematisch gamegedrag. Bij de selecte groep waarbij dit wel het geval is, kunnen er ten gevolge van excessief gamen negatieve effectenoptreden. Voorbeelden hiervan kunnen puur lichamelijk zijn, zoals musculoskeletale aandoeningen (

Literatuurlijst

  1. Algemeen Dagblad. (2014). Gameverslaafde vader laat zoontje verhongeren. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://www.ad.nl/buitenland/gameverslaafde-vader-laat-zoontje-verhongeren~a4129d40/
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.).
  3. Arlington.  Bonnaire, C. & Phan, O. (2017). Relationships between parental attitudes, family functioning and Internet gaming disorder in adolescents attending school. Psychiatry Research, 255(July 2016), 104–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.05.030
  4. Booister, M. (2014). Gameverslaving in Zuid Korea. Retrieved from https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/bijlagen/Artikel-Gameverslaving.pdf
  5. Collier, K.M., Coyne, S.M., Rasmussen, E.E., Hawkins, A.J., Padilla-Walk er, L.M. e al. (2016). Does parental mediation of media influence child outcomes? A meta-analysis on media time, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior. Developmental Psychology, 52(5), 798–812. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000108
  6. De Leeuw, J.R.J., De Bruijn, M., De Weert-Van Oene, G.H. & Schrijvers, A. J. (2010). Internet and game behaviour at a secondary school and a newly developed health promotion programme: A prospective study. BMC Public Health, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-544
  7. De Vos, R. (2017). De Gamewereld: Big Business. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from Metro Nieuws website: https://www.metronieuws.nl/nieuws/dossier/2017/09/gaming-is-anno-2017-groter-dan-ooit
  8. Duintjer Tebbens, M. (2019). “Verbied verslavende games voor minderjarigen.” Retrieved from https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2305281-verbied-verslavende-games-voor-minderjarigen.html
  9. Faulkner, G., Irving, H., Adlaf, E.M. & Turner, N. (2014). Subtypes of adolescent video gamers: A latent class analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 13(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-014-9501-6
  10. Game Politics. (n.d.). Twins drown while dad plays video game. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://gamepolitics.livejournal.com/136608.html
  11. González-Bueso, V., Santamaría, J.J., Fernández, D., Merino, L., Montero, E. et al. (2018). Internet gaming disorder in adolescents: Personality, psychopathology and evaluation of a psychological intervention combined with parent psychoeducation. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(787). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00787
  12. Haagsma, M.C. King, D.L., Pieterse, M.E. & Peters, O. (2013). Assessing Problematic Video Gaming Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Dutch Young People. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(2), 172–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-012-9407-0
  13. Haagsma, M.C., Pieterse, M.E., & Peters, O. (2012). The Prevalence of Problematic Video Gamers in The Netherlands. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(3), 162–168. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0248
  14. Han, D.H., Lee, Y.S., Na, C., Ahn, J.Y., Chung, U.S. et al. (2009). The effect of methylphenidate on Internet video game play in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50, 251–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.08.011
  15. Király, O., Tóth, D., Urbán, R., Demetrovics, Z. & Maraz, A. (2017). Intense video gaming is not essentially problematic. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 31(7), 807–817. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000316
  16. Kohn, D. (2005). Addicted: suicide over Everquest? Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/addicted-sui-cide-over-everquest/
  17. Koning, I.M., Peeters, M., Finkenauer, C. & van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M. (2018). Bidirectional e ects of Internet-specific parenting practices and compulsive social media and Internet game use. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 624–632. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.68
  18. Koning, I., van Gurp, F., Doornwaard, S., van den Eijnden, R. & ter
Bogt, T. (2018). The impact of heavy and disordered use of games
and social media on adolescents’ psychological, social, and school functioning. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 697–706. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.65
  19. Kuss, D.J. (2018). Policy, prevention, and regulation for Internet Gaming Disorder. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 553–555. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.79
  20. Laconi, S., Pirès, S. & Chabrol, H. (2017). Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 652–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.012
  21. Lee, S.Y., Lee, H.K. & Choo, H. (2017). Typology of Internet gaming disorder and its clinical implications. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 71(7), 479–491. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12457
  22. Lemmens, J.S., Valkenburg, P.M. & Gentile, D. A. (2015). The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale. Psychological Assessment, 27(2), 567–582. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000062
  23. Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M. & Peter, J. (2009). Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychology, 12(1), 77–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260802669458
  24. Leung, R. (2005). Can a video game lead to murder? Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/can-a-video-gamelead-to-murder-04-03-2005
  25. Markey, P., Prax, P., Mills, K.L., Dullur, P., Przybylski, A.K. et al. (2018). A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.19
  26. Mihara, S. & Higuchi, S. (2017). Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review of the literature. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 71(7), 425–444. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12532
  27. Müller, K.W., Beutel, M.E., Dreier, M. & Wölfling, K. (2019). A clinical evaluation of the DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder
and a pilot study on their applicability to further Internet-related disorders. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.140
  28. Müller, K.W., Beutel, M.E., Eglo , B. & Wölfling, K. (2014). Investigating risk factors for internet gaming disorder: A comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits. European Addiction Research, 20, 129–136. https://doi.org/10.1159/000355832
  29. NewsComAU. (n.d.). Ohio teenager Daniel Petric killed mother over Halo 3 video game. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://www.news.com.au/technology/teen-killed-mother-over-video-game/news-story/bc9bab5de0372a8d96f34421da311b5a
  30. Nieuwsuur. (2019). Staatssecretaris Blokhuis wil af van verslavende elementen in games. Retrieved from https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2305793-staatssecretaris-blokhuis-wil-af-van-verslavende-elementen-in-games.html
  31. NOS. (2011). 12.000 jongeren verslaafd aan gamen. Retrieved from https://nos.nl/artikel/239246-12-000-jongeren-verslaafd-aan-gamen.html
  32. Paulus, F.W., Ohmann, S., von Gontard, A., & Popow, C. (2018). Internet  gaming disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 60(7), 645–659. https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13754
  33. Peeters, M., Koning, I. & van den Eijnden, R. (2018). Predicting Internet Gaming Disorder symptoms in young adolescents: A one-year follow-up study. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 255–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.11.008
  34. Peters, C. S. & Malesky, L. A. (2008). Problematic Usage Among Highly-Engaged Players of Massively Multiplayer Online Role  Playing Games. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 481–484. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0140
  35. Petry, N.M., Rehbein, F., Gentile, D.A., Lemmens, J.S., Rumpf, H.J. et al.  (2014). An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach. Addiction, 109(9), 1399–1406. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12457
  36. Petry, N. M., Rehbein, F., Ko, C. H., & O’Brien, C. P. (2015). Internet Gaming Disorder in the DSM-5. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0610-0
  37. Powers, K.L., Brooks, P.J., Aldrich, N.J., Palladino, M.A. & Alfieri, L. (2013). E ects of video-game play on information processing: A meta-analytic investigation. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 20(6), 1055–1079. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0418-z
  38. Ramirez, L., Walden, E. & Hart, S.R. (2018). Conditions for further study: proposed Internet Gaming Disorder. Communiqué, 47(4), 26–29.
  39. Rehm, J., Hao, W., Long, J., Carragher, N., Sharma, M. et al. (2018). Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 556–561. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.59
  40. Schneider, L.A., King, D.L. & Delfabbro, P.H. (2017). Family factors in adolescent problematic Internet gaming: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 321–333. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.035
  41. Starcevic, V. (2017). IGD inadequate diagnostic criteria wrapped in a constraining conceptual model. PDF. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(2), 110–113.
  42. Stevens, G., Dorsselaer, S. Van, Boer, M., Roos, S. De, Duinhof, E. et al. HBSC, gezondheid en welzijn van jongeren in Nederland.
  43. Su, B., Yu, C., Zhang, W., Su, Q., Zhu, J. & Jiang, Y. (2018). Father-child longitudinal relationship: Parental monitoring and internet gaming disorder in Chinese adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(FEB), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00095
  44. Sugaya, N., Shirasaka, T., Takahashi, K. & Kanda, H. (2019). Bio-psychosocial factors of children and adolescents with internet gaming disorder: a systematic review. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 13(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13030-019-0144-5
  45. Torres-Rodríguez, A., Gri ths, M.D., Carbonell, X. & Oberst, U. (2018). Internet gaming disorder in adolescence: Psychological characteristics of a clinical sample. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(3), 707–718. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.75
  46. van Leeuwen, L. & Goossens, F. X. (2016). Problematisch gamen: aanbevelingen voor preventie. Trimbos Instituut Utrecht.
  47. van Rooij, A.J., Schoenmakers, T.M. & van de Mheen, D. (2017). Clinical validation of the C-VAT 2.0 assessment tool for gaming disorder: A sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and the clinical characteristics of young patients with ‘video game addiction.’ Addictive Behaviors, 64, 269–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.10.018
  48. Van Rooij, A.J., Schoenmakers, T.M., Vermulst, A.A., Van Den Eijnden, R.J.J.M. & Van De Mheen, D. (2011). Online video game addiction: Identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction, 106(1), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03104.x
  49. van Rooij, A.J., Van Looy, J. & Billieux, J. (2017). Internet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 71(7), 445–458. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12404
  50. Wang, C.W., Ho, R.T.H., Chan, C.L.W. & Tse, S. (2015). Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: Trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction. Addictive Behaviors, 42, 32–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.