Mental health or well-being is more than the absence of psychopathology. Mental health has been operationalized as well-being that comprises of emotional, psychological and social well-being. Research has shown that that psychopathology and well-being are related but distinct continua. As a consequence, in order to develop preventive and curative interventions, it is important to not only study the eff ects of treatments on psychopa- thology but on well-being as well, e.g. as part of routine outcome monitoring in health care. In this paper the results are presented of a study on the reliability and validity of three import instruments measuring well-being: the mental health continuum – short form (MHC-SF), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) and the Flourishing Scale (FS ). It is concluded that the MHC-SF , FS and WEMWBS are all three reliable and valid instruments for measuring well-being. The MHC-SF has the most comprehensive theo- retical underpinnings and has been studied most elaborately.

1559 Weergaven
Log in
Binnen de psychologie is de belang - stelling voor het positief functioneren en welbevinden van mensen de afgelopen jaren sterk gegroeid. Maar wat zijn goede instrumenten om welbevinden van mensen te meten? In dit artikel presenteren Ernst Bohlmeijer en collega’s drie meetinstrumenten die niet alleen subjectief welbevinden meten maar vooral ook psychologisch welbevinden. De uitkomsten van dit vergelijkend onderzoek kan de psycholoog helpen een goede keuze te maken voor een vragenlijst die welbevinden meet.


Geestelijke gezondheid is meer dan de afwezigheid van psychische stoornissen. In 2005 omschreef de World Health Organization (WHO)27 geestelijke gezondheid als ‘a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community ‘ ( WHO, 2005, p. 2). In de wetenschappelijk literatuur wordt geestelijke gezondheid geoperationaliseerd als welbevinden (Bohlmeijer et al., 2013; Westerhof & Bohlmeijer, 2010)525. Daarbij wordt een onderscheid gemaakt tussen emotioneel, psychologisch en sociaal welbevinden. Emotioneel of subjectief welbevinden verwijst naar de ervaring van positieve en negatieve affecten en de cognitieve evaluatie van het eigen leven. Psychologisch welbevinden verwijst naar het effectief functioneren en zelfverwerkelijking van een individu en omvat elementen als vertrouwen, zelfacceptatie, realisatie van doelen, zingeving, positieve relaties en autonomie. Sociaal welbevinden verwijst naar


  1. Alden, L. E. & Trew, J. L. (2013). If it makes you happy: engaging in kind  acts increases positive aff ect in socially anxious individuals.  Emotion,  13 , 64-75.
  2. Anderson, T.W. & Finn, J. (1996).  The new statistical analysis of data.  New  York: Springer-Verlag.
  3. Bjelland, I., Dahl, A. A., Haug, T. T. & Neckelmann, D. (2002). The validity  of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. An updated literature  review.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52, 69-77.
  4. Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Kramer, J., Boon, B., Smit, F. et al. (2012).  Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Mental Fitness in Mildly  Depressed Adults: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial.  Journal of  Medical Internet Research Research Protocols 1, e2.
  5. Bohlmeijer, E. T., Westerhof, G. J., Bolier, L., Steeneveld, M., Geurts, M.  & Walburg, J. A. (2013). Welbevinden: van bijzaak naar hoofdzaak?  De  Psycholoog, 11,  48-59.
  6. Dellemann, O. (2014). Positieve psychiatrie als visie voor praktijk van de  GGZ.  Maandblad Geestelijke volksgezondheid, 3, 16-23.
  7. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. et al. (2010). New  well-being measures: Short scales to assess fl ourishing and positive  and negative feelings.  Social Indicators Research ,  97 , 143-156.
  8. Dierendonck, D. van (2005). The construct Validity of Ryff ’s Scales of  Psychological Well-being and its extensions with spiritual well-being.  Personality and Individual Diff erences, 36 , 629-643.
  9. Fava, G. A. & Tomba, E. (2009). Increasing psychological well-being and  resilience by psychotherapeutic methods.  Journal of Personality, 77, 1903-1934.
  10. Fava, G. A., Rafanelli, C., Cazzaro, M., Conti, S. & Grandi, S. (1998).  Well-being therapy. A novel psychotherapeutic approach for residual  symptoms of aff ective disorders.  Psychological medicine, 28, 475-480.
  11. Gagne, M. (2003). The role of autonomy support and autonomy orien- tation in prosocial behavior engagement.  Motivation and emotion, 27 ,  199-223.
  12. Keyes, C. L. M., Wissing, M., Potgieter, J., Temane, M., Kruger, A. & Rooy, S.  van (2008). Evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form  (MHC-SF) in Swetsana-speaking South Africans.  Clinical Psychology and  Psychotherapy ,  15 , 181-192.
  13. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing  to fl ourishing in life.  Journal of Health and Social Behavior ,  43 , 207–222.
  14. Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating  axioms of the complete state model of health.  Journal of Consulting and  Clinical Psychology ,  73 , 539–548.
  15. Lamers, S. M. A., Westerhof, G. J., Bohlmeijer, E. T., Ten Klooster, P. M. &  Keyes, C. L. M. (2011). Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the  Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in the Dutch Popula- tion.  Journal of Clinical Psychology  67, 99-110.
  16. Lamers, S. M. A., Glas, C. A.W., Westerhof, G. J. & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2012).  Longitudinal evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form  (MHC-SF): Measurement invariance across demographics, physical  illness and mental illness.  European Journal of Psychological Assessment,  28 , 290-296.
  17. Lamers, S. M. A., Smit, A. & Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (2013). Het meten  van welbevinden en optimaal functioneren. In: E. T. Bohlmeijer, L. Bo- lier, G. J. Westerhof & J. A. Walburg (Red).  Handboek positieve psychologie (p. 387-398). Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom.
  18. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials:  A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.  Annual  Review of Psychology ,  52 , 141-166.
  19. Ryan, R. M., Huta, V. & Deci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination  theory perspective on eudaimonia.  Journal of Happiness Studies ,  9 , 139- 170.
  20. Schaefer, A., Nils, F., Sanchez, X. & Philippot, P. (2010). Assessing the  effectiveness of a large database of emotion-eliciting films: A new tool  for emotion researchers.  Cognition & Emotion, 24(7) , 1153-1172.
  21. Schotanus-Dijkstra, M., Klooster, P. ten., Drossaert, C. M.C., Pieterse,  M. E., Bolier, L. et al. (in druk). Validation of the Dutch version of the  Flourishing Scale.
  22. Schotanus-Dijkstra, M., Drossaert, C. M.C., Graaf, R. de., Have, M. ten.,  Pieterse, M. E. et al. (2015). What factors are associated with flourishing? Results from a large representative national sample.  Journal of  Happiness Studies. Doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9647-3.
  23. Spinhoven, P., Ormel, J., Sloekers, P. P. A., Kempen, G.I. J. M., Speckens,  A. E. M. & Hemert, A. M. van (1997). A validation study of the Hospital  Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different groups of Dutch  subjects.  Psychological Medicin, 27, 363-370.
  24. Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S. Joseph, S. et al. (2007). The  Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): Develop- ment and UK evaluation.  Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 5,  63-75.
  25. Westerhof, G. J. & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2010).  De psychologie van de levenskunst.  Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Boom.
  26. Westerhof, G. J. & Keyes, C. L. M. (2008). Geestelijke gezondheid is meer  dan de afwezigheid van geestelijke ziekte.  Maandblad Geestelijke Volks- gezondheid, 63 , 808-820.
  27. World Health Organization. (2005).  Promoting mental health: Concepts,  emerging evidence, practice . Geneva: WHO.
  28. Wood, A. M., Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive clinical psychology: a new vision  and strategy for research and practice.  Clinical Psychology Review, 30 ,  819-829.